The root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake by means of branching and root hairs by being long, which draws more nutrients and water, by being more spread out, which results in having less competition for resources, being sturdy to survive through tough weather, and being spidery shaped. The ions get into the plants through the processes of diffusion, fungal hyphae, and active transport. Diffusion is when particles move from a high concentrated are to a low concentrated area. Fungal hyphae is when fungus on plants strech out to get food and water. Active transport is when ATP is used to transport substances between membranes.

The process of mineral ion absorption from the soil into roots by active transport is through the hydrogen pump. ATP is used to move the hydrogen ions from the cytoplasm to the lysoome or from one areas to another. The protein being transported then changes shape in order for the hydrogen ion to fit through the membrane. The protein is conformation A when it receives an ion and turns into conformation B, under ATP, in order to release the ion to the other side.

Terrestrial plants support themselves by means of thickened cellulose, cell turgor and lignified xylem.

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